Editor's Note: To commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Mormon Trail, The Salt Lake Tribune is offering this day-by-day account of the Mormon Pioneers' original trek from Winter Quarters, Nebraska, to the Great Salt Lake Valley. Tribune history writer Harold Schindler, using diaries, letters, journals and reminiscences that have come to light this century, has fleshed out the following narrative.
Friday, April 16, 1847
Brigham Young today organized the Camp of Israel into traveling companies, groups of ten pioneers, each with a captain, and a specific marching order. The plan accommodated the 143 men and boys, three women and two children comprising this Mormon vanguard. They assembled at the rear of Young's wagon this morning and counted off. He appointed Stephen Markham and Albert Perry Rockwood as captains of hundreds; Tarlton Lewis, James Page, John Pack and Shadrach Roundy as captains of fifties; and these fourteen: Wilford Woodruff, Ezra T. Benson, Phineas H. Young, Luke S. Johnson, Stephen H. Goddard, Charles Shumway, James Case, Seth Taft, Howard Egan, Appleton M. Harmon, John S. Higbee, Norton Jacob, John Brown and Joseph Mathews, as captains of 10s.
Markham also was named captain of the guard with orders to pick fifty trustworthy men as the standing guard of the camp at night. There are to be two groups of twelve sentries every night, each group to stand guard half the night. When horses and cattle are staked out to graze at night some distance from the camp, an extra guard is to be selected from the balance of the company. The standing guard will not be permitted to leave the immediate vicinity of the wagons.
The full company of pioneers comprising the Camp of Israel is as follows:
First 10--Wilford Woodruff, captain: Jacob D. Burnham, Joseph Egbert, Marcus B. Thorpe, George Wardle, John S. Fowler, Orson Pratt, John M. Freeman, George A. Smith.
Second 10--Ezra T. Benson, captain: Thomas Grover, Barnabas L. Adams, Roswell Stevens, Amasa M. Lyman, Starling Driggs, Albert Carrington, Thomas Bullock, George W. Brown, Willard Richards, Jesse C. Little.
Third 10--Phineas H. Young, captain: John Y. Greene, Thomas Tanner, Brigham Young and wife, Addison Everett, Truman O. Angell, Lorenzo Young and wife, Briant Stringham, Albert P. Rockwood, Joseph S. Scofield.
Fourth 10--Luke S. Johnson, captain: John G. Holman, Edmund Ellsworth, Sidney Alvarus Hanks, George R. Grant, Millen Atwood, Samuel B. Fox, Tunis Rappleye, Eli Harvey Peirce, William Dykes, Jacob Weiler.
Fifth 10--Stephen H. Goddard, captain: Tarlton Lewis, Henry G. Sherwood, Zebedee Coltrin, Sylvester H. Earl, John Dixon, Samuel H. Marble, George Scholes, William Henrie, William A. Empey.
Sixth 10--Charles Shumway, captain: Andrew P. Shumway, Thomas Woolsey, Chauncey Loveland, Erastus Snow, James Craig, William Wardsworth, William P. Vance, Simeon Howd, Seeley Owen.
Seventh 10--James Case, captain: Artemas Johnson, William C.A. Smoot, Franklin B. Dewey, William Carter, Franklin G. Losee, Burr Frost, Horace Datus Ensign, Franklin B. Stewart, Horace Monroe Frink, Eric Glines, Ozro R. Eastman.
Eighth 10--Seth Taft, captain: Horace Thornton, Stephen Kelsey, John S. Eldredge, Charles D. Barnum, Almon M. Williams, Rufus Allen, Robert T. Thomas, James W. Stewart, Elijah Newman, Levi N. Kendall, Francis Boggs, David Grant.
Ninth 10--Howard Egan, captain: Heber C. Kimball and wife, William A. King, Thomas Cloward, Hosea Cushing, Robert E. Baird, George P. Billings, Edson Whipple, Philo Johnson, William Clayton.
Tenth 10--Appleton M. Harmon, captain: Carlos Murray, Horace K. Whitney, Orson K. Whitney, Orrin P. Rockwell, Nathaniel T. Brown, R. Jackson Redden, John Pack, Francis M. Pomeroy, Aaron Farr, Nathaniel Fairbanks.
Eleventh 10--John S. Higbee, captain: John Wheeler, Solomon Chamberlain, Conrad Kleinman, Joseph Rooker, Perry Fitzgerald, John H. Tippetts, James Davenport, Henson Walker, Benjamin W. Rolfe.
Twelfth 10--Norton Jacob, captain: Charles A. Harper, George Woodward, Stephen Markham, Lewis Barney, George Mills, Andrew Gibbons, Joseph Hancock, John W. Norton.
Thirteenth 10--John Brown, captain: Shadrach Roundy, Hans C. Hansen, Levi Jackman, Lyman Curtis, Matthew Ivory, David Powell, Hark Lay, Oscar Crosby.
Fourteenth 10--Joseph Mathews, captain: Gilbard Summe, John S. Gleason, Charles Burk, Alexander P. Chesley, Rodney Badger, Norman Taylor, Green Flake.
The three wives in camp were Harriet Page Wheeler Young (wife of Lorenzo D. Young), Clarissa Decker Young (wife of Brigham Young) and Ellen Saunders Kimball (wife of Heber C. Kimball). Also two children (Isaac Perry Decker and Lorenzo Sobieski Young) were among the party, making a grand total in the pioneer company of 143 men, three women and two children--148 souls in all. The company had seventy-two wagons, ninety-three horses, fifty-two mules, sixty-six oxen, nineteen cows, seventeen dogs and some chickens.
Once the organization was complete the pioneers broke camp at 2:00 p.m. and started for the Rocky Mountains. They made three miles this afternoon and camped in a line a few hundred yards from timber, where there were plenty of cottonwoods and rushes. About dark, a cold wind blew up from the north.